The Colombian countryside has been the scene of the war that the country has faced for more than 50 years.That conflict has concentrated land in a few hands, lack of infrastructure, public services, education and absence of support for farmers so they are able to grow and get their products to market.
The agreement on Comprehensive Rural Reform, signed by the Government and the Farc, sheds some answers to these problems and aims for the Colombian countryside ceasing to be thousands of times poorer than the cities.
There will be a land bank which will be delivered to farmers, female-headed households, landless peasants and victims of the conflict that should be repaired.
They will be given land titles and certificates to the spoil is never repeated.
The new beneficiaries will hold the titles thanks to agrarian justice that will settle disputes.
Those who cultivate the field will have access to tools and vehicles.
To improve available production, machinery and infrastructure will be on hand to connect these areas with commercial centers.
The first to benefit will be those living in areas hardest hit by the war. This will be determined by the Government and it seeks that those who fled the violence can have a home to rebuild their lives.
The environment will be protected through the delimitation of the agricultural frontier.
The benefit of this investment in the field will receive state support to cultivate, sow, sell and be educated in the field of post-conflict in Colombia.
Once the final agreement is signed in Havana, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia will leave their weapons and become a political party or movement. That's what the negotiators agreed on the second item on the agenda, "Political participation: democratic opening to build peace".
To ensure the political participation of Farc -and all opposition parties and movements- the National Government will present a bill on the statute governing Opposition: a text that will emerge from an integrated by parties and movements with legal status.
Also, a special electoral mission, composed of senior experts, whose task is to propose reform the regime and electoral organization will be created. This reform should ensure that opposition parties participate in the elections and that participation is sustained over time, even if they do not reach the threshold of voting.
Strengthening public policy, promotion and guarantees of participation, which involves expanding the channels of communication and building work agendas with organizations and social movements, will also be promoted.
As for institutional changes, the agreement proposes the creation of a National Council for Reconciliation and Coexistence, whose mission is to design and implement a program that promotes reintegration of armed actors to civilian life. In addition, an Integrated Security System for Fiscal Policy, which seeks to ensure the protection of persons involved in politics and who declared themselves in opposition, will be created.
But perhaps the most important point of the agreement is the Special Transitory Peace Constituencies, which are special courts in areas affected by conflict, neglect and weak institutional presence. They will have special rules for the registration and election of candidates for the House of Representatives.
That's right: there is still no agreement on how many representatives will be at Constituency or the number of election periods. The agreement also planning to create a national court of electoral guarantees, the implementation of electronic voting and the foundation of a television channel closed oriented disclosure of political platforms of different parties, the work of social organizations and movements, and the promotion of democratic culture of peace.
The leaders of Farc will pursue now in politics what they fail to achieve whith weapons. As part of the peace plan, the exguerrilla will be given 10 seats in Colombia's Congress until 2026.Agreement - Ending the conflict
After 52 years of war, the guns were silenced in Colombia.
The desire of many generations of Colombians who want a peaceful country is now close to becoming reality.
And what happened on June 23 in Havana shows that the peace process no turning back.
The national government and the Farc agreed on the procedures to end the fighting among them.
The agreement also established how will the guerrillas surrender its arms and how they will be reintegrated into civilian life.
The national government and the Farc agreed to establish a number of temporary areas of normalization and 8 rural camps.
These territories will begin receiving guerrillas five days after the signing of the final agreement. Their transportation will be backed by the national security forces.
In rural areas, Farc fighters prepare for reintegration into civilian life. Once they are installed in the determined territories, the arrest warrants against them will be suspended.
Upon arrival of the Farc troops to these areas, the guerrillas will begin to relinquish their weapons.
It will begin revealing the location of its weapons and minefields 5 days after signing the final agreement. All this arsenal will be destroyed under previously established protocols.
Individual weapons (ie, pistols and rifles), grenades and ammunition entering the rural zones will be stored in containers under the responsibility of the Farc. The final part will take place in three phases: 30 percent of the weapons will be delivered within 90 days of the signing of the final agreement; another 30 percent in 120 days; and the remaining 40 percent in 150.
With the molten metal from those weapons three monuments will be built in different places: The first, in the general headquarters of the United Nations, in New York. The second, in Cuba. And the third, in a place determined by the political organization emerged from the transformation of the Farc, in agreement with the national government.Agreement - Illicit drugs
In order to cut the ties drug-war, the FARC and the Colombian government will create a national program of crop substitution.
Through this figure, voluntary manual eradication of coca, poppy, marijuana and other illicit in different parts of the country will be promoted. This will be done to change plans for economic and social development, as most farmers live in poverty.
In turn, the Government is committed to stop using aerial spraying with glyphosate but in 'exceptional' cases.
The plans will be organized and discussed by the communities, who will have the last word. Thus, growers can provide solutions to their unmet basic needs.
The parts also designed a plan for drug intervention.
With this plan the medical and social care of drugs users in the country will improve. And besides, it will end the stigma and criminal prosecution against them. Also, more prevention campaigns drug will be launched.
The authorities commit to strengthen their action against criminal groups involved in drug trafficking and money laundering. In turn, a major international conference will be organized to rethink the fight against drugs.Agreement - Victims
The government and the Farc agreed to create a comprehensive system of truth, justice, reparation and non-repetition, composed by the Commission, the Special Court for Peace and the Office for the search for missing persons.
In the Commission, the victims of State agents, guerrillas, paramilitary groups or those exiled or hidden, will find truth and recognition of their rights. There testimonies will be heard, dialogue will be promoted and the causes of conflict will be clarified.
The Special Court for Peace will administer justice. The perpetrator, whether guerrilla, state agent or a civilian committed to the conflict, will be judged by the Tribunal for peace, which will punish crimes against humanity, including genocide, kidnapping, torture, extrajudicial executions, enforced disappearances, violent sexual intercourse and recruitment of minors. Political rebellion and related crimes such as illegal possession of weapons and deaths in combat, will be subject to amnesty or pardon.
The victimizers must reveal the truth, their freedom of residence and movement will be restricted between two and eight years. Any failure to disclose the truth will be punished with deprivation of liberty, also between two and eight years. But if some part of conflict does not recognize its responsibility and ends up being convicted, he will be deprived of liberty between 15 and 20 years.
In addition to both parties asking for forgiveness, the Farc will contribute to full compensation including the material- and infrastructure reconstruction, demining, substitution of illicit crops and reforestation; while the government will offer better psychosocial care and relocation plans to displaced persons.
Editor at EL TIEMPO